Bibliography

List Of Figures CLICK

Bibliography

 - In Order Of Appearance -

 

1

 

 

(1) William McDonough and Michael Braungart, Cradle to Cradle: Remaking The Way We Make Things” (New York: North Point Press 2002) 92

 

 (2) J.ames E. Lovelock. Atmospheric Environment: Gaia as seen through the atmosphere. 6 (8): 579–580.(1972) doi:10.1016/0004-6981(72)90076-5.

 

 (3) William Rosen, The Most Powerful Idea in the World: A Story of Steam, Industry, and Invention. (New York: Random House, 2011)

 

(4) William McDonough and Michael Braungart, Cradle to Cradle: Remaking The Way We Make Things” (New York: North Point Press 2002)

 

 (5)  biography.com, Francis Bacon: Academic, Academic, Scientist, Lawyer(1561–1626). Accessed: 2nd of June 2017. https://www.biography.com/people/francis-bacon-9194632

 

 (6)  William Leiss, The Domination of Nature, (Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press 1972/1994) 89

 

(7) William McDonough and Michael Braungart, Cradle to Cradle: Remaking The Way We Make Things” (New York: North Point Press 2002) 21

 

 

 

2

 

 

(8) Vivian Powes, The Bakelitzer: A National Historic Chemical Landmark (Washington: American Chemistry Society, 1993) Digital Version: https://www.acs.org/content/dam/acsorg/education/whatischemistry/landmarks/bakelite/the-bakelizer-commemorative-booklet.pdf

 

 (9) European Commission, “Strategy on Plastics in a Circular Economy” First Accessed: 26th of January 2017. http://ec.europa.eu/smart-regulation/roadmaps/docs/plan_2016_39_plastic_strategy_en.pdf

 

 (10) Sarah Mosko “The Problems with Petroleum Based Plastic” Algalita Marine and Research and Education. Acsessed: 1st of June 2017. http://www.algalita.org/bioplastics-are-they-the-solution/

 

 (11) World Economic Forum, Ellen MacArthur Foundation and McKinsey & Company, The New Plastics Economy — Rethinking the future of plastics (2016, http://www.ellenmacarthurfoundation.org/publications).

 

 (12) World Economic Forum and Ellen MacArthur Foundation, The New Plastics Economy –Catalysing action (2017, http://www.ellenmacarthurfoundation.org/publications).

 

 (13) European Comission, “Strategy on Plastics in a Circular Economy” First Acsessed: 26th of January 2017 http://ec.europa.eu/smart-regulation/roadmaps/docs/plan_2016_39_plastic_strategy_en.pdf

 

 (14) Plastics Europe, Plastics – the Facts Report 2013 First Published: 14 October 2013 http://www.plasticseurope.org/Document/plastics-the-facts-2013.aspx?FolID=2

 

 (15) Sarah Mosko “The Problems with Petroleum Based Plastic” Algalita Marine and Research and Education. Accessed: 1 June 2017. http://www.algalita.org/bioplastics-are-they-the-solution/

 

 (16) Barry E DiGregorio, "Biobased Performance Bioplastic: Mirel," Chemistry & Biology 16:1 (2009) 1-2 Assessed: 30 January 2009 doi: doi.org/10.1016/j.chembiol.2009.01.001

 

(17) PPC One Sheet, plasticpollutioncoalition.com. Accessed: 2 June 2017, https://plasticpollutioncoalition.zendesk.com/hc/en-us/articles/115001996707-PPC-One-Sheet-English

 

 (18) Jenna R. Jambeck, Roland Geyer, Chris Wilcox,Theodore R. Siegler, et.la, .Plastic waste inputs from land into the ocean. Science, Vol. 347, Issue 6223, pp. 768-771(25th of August 2014; accepted 16 January 2015. doi:10.1126/science.1260352

 

 (19) European Commission, Being wise with waste: the EU’s approach to waste management (Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union, 2010) http://ec.europa.eu/environment/waste/pdf/WASTE%20BROCHURE.pdf

 

 (20) European Commission, Being wise with waste: the EU’s approach to waste management (Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union, 2010) http://ec.europa.eu/environment/waste/pdf/WASTE%20BROCHURE.pdf

 

 (21) Gianna-Carina Grün, Six data visualizations that explain the plastic problem. First published on dw.com the 30st of December 2016. http://www.dw.com/en/six-data-visualizations-that-explain-the-plastic-problem/a-36861883

 

 (22) Velis C.A. (2014). Global recycling markets - plastic waste: A story for one player – China. Report prepared by FUELogy and formatted by D-waste on behalf of International Solid Waste Association - Globalisation and Waste Management Task Force. ISWA, Vienna, September 2014.

 

 (23)Arthur Neslen, Warnings Over Children's Health As Recycled E-waste Comes Back As Plastic Toys. The Guardian. Last Modified: Thursday 9th of March 2017. https://www.theguardian.com/sustainable-business/2017/mar/09/plastics-recycling-ewaste-children-toys-health-risks-flame-retardants-circular-economy

 

 (24) Arthur Neslen, Warnings Over Children's Health As Recycled E-waste Comes Back As Plastic Toys. The Guardian. Last Modified: Thursday 9th of March 2017.  https://www.theguardian.com/sustainable-business/2017/mar/09/plastics-recycling-ewaste-children-toys-health-risks-flame-retardants-circular-economy

 

 

 (25) World Economic Forum and Ellen MacArthur Foundation, The New Plastics Economy –Catalysing action (2017, http://www.ellenmacarthurfoundation.org/publications).

 

 (26)William McDonough and Michael Braungart, Cradle to Cradle: Remaking The Way We Make Things (New York: North Point Press 2002), 58

 

(27) oxforddictionaries.com Accessed: 1 June, 2017. https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/packaging

 

 (28) oxforddictionaries.com Accessed: 1 June, 2017. https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/disposable

 

 (29) Kiyo Dörrer, What to do about Germany's mounting packaging waste? http://www.dw.com/, First Published: 12 June 2016, http://p.dw.com/p/2ToKc

 

 (30) World Economic Forum and Ellen MacArthur Foundation, The New Plastics Economy –Catalysing action (2017, http://www.ellenmacarthurfoundation.org/publications).

 

(31) European Commission, “Strategy on Plastics in a Circular Economy” First Accessed: 26th of January 2017. http://ec.europa.eu/smart-regulation/roadmaps/docs/plan_2016_39_plastic_strategy_en.pdf

 

 (32) World Economic Forum and Ellen MacArthur Foundation, The New Plastics Economy – Catalysing action (2017, http://www.ellenmacarthurfoundation.org/publications).

 

 (33) World Economic Forum and Ellen MacArthur Foundation, The New Plastics Economy –Catalysing action (2017, http://www.ellenmacarthurfoundation.org/publications).

 

 (34) Marcus Eriksen , Laurent C. M. Lebreton, Henry S. Carson, Martin Thiel, Charles J. Moore, Jose C. Borerro, Francois Galgani, Peter G. Ryan, Julia Reisser, Plastic Pollution in the World's Oceans: More than 5 Trillion Plastic Pieces Weighing over 250,000 Tons Afloat at Sea. Accessed: December 10, 2014. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111913

 

(35) Note: Excludes cigarette butts from calculation. D. Barnes et al.,Accumulation and fragmentation of plastic debris in global environments (Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 2009). Note: Ocean Conservancy, International Coastal Cleanup (2014)

 

 (36) Graeme Wearden “More plastic than fish in the sea by 2050, says Ellen MacArthur"  19 January 2016 https://www.theguardian.com/business/2016/jan/19/more-plastic-than-fish-in-the-sea-by-2050-warns-ellen-macarthur

 

 (37) Over 260 species, including invertebrates, turtles, fish, seabirds and mammals, have been reported to ingest or become entangled in plastic debris, resulting in impaired movement and feeding, reduced reproductive output, lacerations, ulcers and death. Source: Thompson, Richard C.; Moore, Charles J.; vom Saal, Frederick S.; Swan, Shanna H. "Plastics, the Environment and Human Health: Current Consensus and Future Trends," Biological Sciences 14 June 2009

 

 (38) Gianna-Carina Grün, Six data visualizations that explain the plastic problem. First published on dw.com the 30  December 2016. http://www.dw.com/en/six-data-visualizations-that-explain-the-plastic-problem/a-36861883

 

 (39) Brian Clark Howard, 5 Trillion Pieces of Ocean Trash Found, But Fewer Particles Than Expected. National Geographic. First Published: 13th of December, 2014. http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2014/12/141211-ocean-plastics-garbage-patches-5-gyres-pollution-environment/

 

 (40)Tatiana Schlossberg, Trillions of Plastic Bits, Swept Up by Current, Are Littering Arctic Waters. The New York Times. First Published:19th of April 2017 https://www.nytimes.com/2017/04/19/climate/arctic-plastics-pollution.html?_r=0

 

 (41) Richard Harth. Perils Of Plastics: Risks To Human Health and The Environment. Arizona State University Biodesign Institute. First Published: 18th March 2010. https://biodesign.asu.edu/news/perils-plastics-risks-human-health-and-environment

 

(42) Jefferson Hopewell, Robert Dvorak, Edward Kosior, Plastics Recycling: Challenges and Opportunities. Biological Sciences Volume 364, issue 1526. First Published: 14th of June 2009. DOI: 10.1098/rstb.2008.0311

 

 (43) Chelsea Rochman, Eunha Hoh, Tomofumi Kurobe and Swee J. Teh. Ingested Plastic Transfers Hazardous Chemicals to Fish and Induces Hepatic Stress. Scientific Reports 3. Accessed 21 November 2013 doi:10.1038/srep03263

 

 (44) Andrady, Anthony L. "Microplastics in the Marine Environment," Marine Pollution Bulletin Volume 62, Issue 8, First Published: August 2011. doi: doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2011.05.030

 

 (45) Jefferson Hopewell, Robert Dvorak, Edward Kosior, Plastics Recycling: Challenges and Opportunities. Biological Sciences Volume 364, issue 1526. First Published: 14th of June 2009. DOI: 10.1098/rstb.2008.0311

 

 (46) World Economic Forum, Ellen MacArthur Foundation and McKinsey & Company, The New Plastics Economy — Rethinking the future of plastics (2016, http://www.ellenmacarthurfoundation.org/publications).

 

 

 

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(47) Biodegradable Products Institute (BPI) “Confused by the Terms Biodegradable” PDF Download: January 2015 http://www.bpiworld.org/page-1857452

 

 (48) European Commission, Being wise with waste: the EU’s approach to waste management (Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union, 2010) http://ec.europa.eu/environment/waste/pdf/WASTE%20BROCHURE.pdf

 

 (49) Biodegradable Products Institute (BPI) “Confused by the Terms Biodegradable” PDF Download: January 2015 http://www.bpiworld.org/page-1857452

 

 (50) William McDonough and Michael Braungart, Cradle to Cradle: Remaking The Way We Make Things (New York: North Point Press 2002)

 

 (52) European Bioplastics: Certifications for bioplastics. Accessed: 1st of June 2017. http://www.european-bioplastics.org/bioplastics/standards/certification/

 

 (59) Pack2Go Europe Accessed: 1st of June 2017. http://www.pack2go-europe.com/en/membership/aug/

 

 (60) de Ster Accessed: 1st of June 2017. http://www.dester.com/home

 

 (61) DART Accessed: 1st of June 2017. https://www.dartcontainer.com/home/

 

 (61) DART Accessed: 1st of June 2017. https://www.dartcontainer.com/home/

 

 (62) Ilip Accessed: 1st of June 2017. http://www.ilip.it

 

 (63) Biodegradable Packaging Market: Global Industry Analysis and Opportunity Assessment 2014 - 2020. Future Market Insights (fmi) Accessed: 1st of June 2017. http://www.futuremarketinsights.com/reports/biodegradable-packaging-market Note: Research is still ongoing until July 2017

 

 (64) Compostable Packaging Materials Market - Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends and Forecast 2016 - 2024, Tranceperancy Market Analysis. Accessed: 1st of June 2017 http://www.transparencymarketresearch.com/compostable-packaging-materials-market.html

 

 (65) Global E-commerce Packaging Market 2016-2020. Technavio. Accessed: 1 June 2017. https://www.technavio.com/report/global-packaging-e-commerce-market?utm_source=T4&utm_medium=BW&utm_campaign=Media

 

 (66) Global E-commerce Packaging Market 2016-2020. Technavio. Accessed: 1 June 2017. https://www.technavio.com/report/global-packaging-e-commerce-market?utm_source=T4&utm_medium=BW&utm_campaign=Media

 

(67)Biodegradable Packaging Market play important role in Packaging Industry, Markets and Markets. Publishing Date: April 2014 Report Code: CH 2347 http://www.marketsandmarkets.com/ResearchInsight/biodegradable-packaging.asp

 

 (68) Biodegradable Packaging Market play important role in Packaging Industry, Markets and Markets. Publishing Date: April 2014 Report Code: CH 2347 http://www.marketsandmarkets.com/ResearchInsight/biodegradable-packaging.asp

 

 (69) Compostable Packaging Materials Market - Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends and Forecast 2016 - 2024, Tranceperancy Market Analysis. Accessed: 1 June 2017http://www.transparencymarketresearch.com/compostable-packaging-materials-market.html

 

 (70) Compostable Packaging Materials Market - Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends and Forecast 2016 - 2024, Tranceperancy Market Analysis. Accessed: 1June 2017 http://www.transparencymarketresearch.com/compostable-packaging-materials-market.html

 

 (71) Rafa Cereceda, France bans plastic bags, what about the rest of the EU? Euronews. Last modified: 30 June 2016 http://www.euronews.com/2016/06/30/france-bans-plastic-bags-what-about-the-rest-of-the-eu

 

 (72) Compostable Packaging Materials Market - Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends and Forecast 2016 - 2024, Tranceperancy Market Analysis. Accessed: 1st of June 2017 http://www.transparencymarketresearch.com/compostable-packaging-materials-market.html

 

 (73) European Bioplastics: Bioplastic materials. Accessed: 1st of June 2017. http://www.european-bioplastics.org/bioplastics/materials/

 

 (74) Compostable Packaging Materials Market - Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends and Forecast 2016 - 2024, Tranceperancy Market Analysis. Accessed: 1st of June 2017 http://www.transparencymarketresearch.com/compostable-packaging-materials-market.html

 

 (75) Alexander H. Tullo, The cost of plastic packaging. Cen- Chemical & Engineering News. First Published: 17 October 2016. http://cen.acs.org/articles/94/i41/cost-plastic-packaging.html

 

 (76) European Commission, “Strategy on Plastics in a Circular Economy” First Accessed: 26th of January 2017  http://ec.europa.eu/smart-regulation/roadmaps/docs/plan_2016_39_plastic_strategy_en.pdf

 

 (77) European Bioplastics: Renewable feedstock. Accessed: 1June 2017. http://www.european-bioplastics.org/bioplastics/materials/

 

 (78) KNN Advies, Accessed: 2 June 2017 http://knnadvies.nl/portfolio/projecten_van_knn_bioplastic/phario_project_officieel_van_start%2521/

 

(79) Aquaris. Accessed: 2 June 2017, http://www.aquiris.be/en/

 

 (80) Shehab Khan, France bans plastic cups, plates and cutlery. independent.co.uk. First Published: 17th of September 2016. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/europe/france-bans-plastic-cups-plates-cutlery-energy-transition-for-green-growth-a7313076.html

 

 (81) Adam Vaughan “Biodegradable plastic 'false solution' for ocean waste problem” First published: 23rd of May 2016 https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2016/may/23/biodegradable-plastic-false-solution-for-ocean-waste-problem

 

 (82) Dave Hall, The west’s throwaway culture has spread waste worldwide. The Guardian. First Published: 13 March 2017, https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2017/mar/13/waste-plastic-food-packaging-recycling-throwaway-culture-dave-hall

 

 (83) European Commission, “Strategy on Plastics in a Circular Economy” First Accessed: 26th of January 2017 http://ec.europa.eu/smart-regulation/roadmaps/docs/plan_2016_39_plastic_strategy_en.pdf

 

 

 

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(84) World Commission on Environment and Development (1987) Also known as the Brundtland Report. Accessed:2nd of June 2017, http://www.un-documents.net/our-common-future.pdf

 

 (85) Anne Chick and Paul Micklethwaite, Design Of Sustainable Change: How design and designers can drive the sustainable agenda (London: AVA Publishing SA 2011), 110

 

 (86) Ellen MacArthur Foundation, School of Thoughts. Accessed: 4th of June 2014 https://www.ellenmacarthurfoundation.org/circular-economy/schools-of-thought/cradle2cradle

 

 (87) Ellen MacArthur Foundation, School of Thoughts. Accessed: 4 June, 2014 https://www.ellenmacarthurfoundation.org/circular-economy/schools-of-thought/cradle2cradle

 

 (88) William McDonough and Michael Braungart, Cradle to Cradle: Remaking The Way We Make Things (New York: North Point Press 2002) 104

 

 (89) William McDonough and Michael Braungart, Cradle to Cradle: Remaking The Way We Make Things (New York: North Point Press 2002) 184

 

 (90) William McDonough and Michael Braungart, Cradle to Cradle: Remaking The Way We Make Things (New York: North Point Press 2002) 44

 

 (91) William McDonough and Michael Braungart, Cradle to Cradle: Remaking The Way We Make Things (New York: North Point Press 2002) 145

 

 (92) William McDonough and Michael Braungart, Cradle to Cradle: Remaking The Way We Make Things (New York: North Point Press 2002) 145

 

 (93) William McDonough and Michael Braungart, Cradle to Cradle: Remaking The Way We Make Things (New York: North Point Press 2002) 145

 

 (94) Jon Goodman, Michael Klien, Andreas Rumpfhuber and Jeremy Hill, The Design Of Scarcity (Moscow: Stelka Press 2014), 66

 

 (95) Jon Goodman, Michael Klien, Andreas Rumpfhuber and Jeremy Hill, The Design Of Scarcity (Moscow: Stelka Press 2014), 66

 

 (96) Jon Goodman, Michael Klien, Andreas Rumpfhuber and Jeremy Hill, The Design Of Scarcity (Moscow: Stelka Press 2014), 17-18

 

 (97) Jon Goodman, Michael Klien, Andreas Rumpfhuber and Jeremy Hill, The Design Of Scarcity (Moscow: Stelka Press 2014), 63

 

 (98) Jon Goodman, Michael Klien, Andreas Rumpfhuber and Jeremy Hill, The Design Of Scarcity (Moscow: Stelka Press 2014), 66

 

 (99) Anne Chick and Paul Micklethwaite, Design Of Sustainable Change: How design and designers can drive the sustainable agenda (London: AVA Publishing SA 2011)

 

 (100) Anne Chick and Paul Micklethwaite, Design Of Sustainable Change: How design and designers can drive the sustainable agenda (London: AVA Publishing SA 2011), 25

 

 (101) Anne Chick and Paul Micklethwaite, Design Of Sustainable Change: How design and designers can drive the sustainable agenda (London: AVA Publishing SA 2011), 35

 

 (102) Anne Chick and Paul Micklethwaite, Design Of Sustainable Change: How design and designers can drive the sustainable agenda (London: AVA Publishing SA 2011), 35

 

 (103) Anne Chick and Paul Micklethwaite, Design Of Sustainable Change: How design and designers can drive the sustainable agenda (London: AVA Publishing SA 2011), 25

 

 (104) Anne Chick and Paul Micklethwaite, Design Of Sustainable Change: How design and designers can drive the sustainable agenda (London: AVA Publishing SA 2011), 47

 

 (105) Anne Chick and Paul Micklethwaite, Design Of Sustainable Change: How design and designers can drive the sustainable agenda (London: AVA Publishing SA 2011), 182

 

 (106) Anne Chick and Paul Micklethwaite, Design Of Sustainable Change: How design and designers can drive the sustainable agenda (London: AVA Publishing SA 2011), 182

 

 

 

 

List Of Figures

 

 

Chapter pictures:

 

Intro

Abstract

Introduction

Background

The Problem

Petrolium Based Plastic

Waste Handling

Disposable Packaging

Plastic Pollution

Solution

Compostable Packaging

Certifications

Political Intervention

Market Prediction

Concerns & Obsticals

Discussion

Changing Materials Isn't Enough

Conclusion

Conclusion

Bibliography

 

 

 

"Toys"

Photograph: Alamy

https://www.theguardian.com/sustainable-business/2017/mar/09/plastics-recycling-ewaste-children-toys-health-risks-flame-retardants-circular-economy#img-1

 

"Photo Collage Of Plastic Fragments"

https://www.nytimes.com/2017/04/19/climate/arctic-plastics-pollution.html

 

"Tomato and Eggshell Material"

https://materia.nl/article/rubber-eggshells-tomato-peels/

“According to the researchers, the technology has the potential to solve three problems: it makes the manufacture of rubber products more sustainable, reduces dependence on oil, and keeps waste out of landfills.”

 

"Biodegradable Bottle, PLA"

http://tobuya3dprinter.com/pla-eco-friendly-3d-printing-filament/

 

"Golden Poo"

http://www.ebay.ie/itm/111913189309

 

"Innovate and Redesign Packaging"

Ellen MacArthur Fdn.

@circulareconomy

https://twitter.com/circulareconomy/status/824963205516709888

 

"Doritos - 7 layers of packaging"

https://www.theguardian.com/sustainable-business/2014/jul/18/good-product-bad-package-plastic-recycle-mistakes#img-1

 

"Sand Packaging"

http://alienandmonkey.com/sand-packaging/

 

"PANTS"

https://www.freitag.ch/en/fabric/compost

 

"Sea Turtle GIF"

https://giphy.com/gifs/featured-11iHkEcgPc0Gkw

 

"Recycling Symbol"

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Recycling

 

Ellen MacArthur - The New Plastic Economy

https://www.ellenmacarthurfoundation.org/publications

 

Cradle To Cradle logo

https://mbdc.com/c2c-certified/

 

Deceleration Of Authorship

Thesis

Supervised by Professor Cyrus Khazeli and Ivan Perez

Communication Design, BTK- Berliner Technische Kunsthochscule

Copyright by Marika Berglind- Ekman 2017

Impressum